Monday, April 19, 2010


nPROGRAM:the set of instructions is called program.
Computer software is the product that software professionals build. It encompasses programs that execute within a computer of any size and architecture, documents that encompass hardcopy and virtual forms, and data that encompasses numbers and text, but also includes representations of pictorial, video, and audio information. The following topic categories are presented:
Despite all the research done by computer scientists, there is no equivalent in software for the fundamental laws of physics. This lack of theory, or at least the lack of practically applicable theories, makes it difficult to do any reasoning about software without actually building it. During design, software can be structured and partitioned into chunks, but the real thing (once it crawls inside a computer) is actually totally unstructured, so that anything that goes wrong somewhere can corrupt something somewhere else. The absence of solid and widely applicable theory also means that the few software engineering standards we do have rely on good practice alone, whereas building codes in other disciplines can trace their rules to sound physical principles.
Software is, almost by definition, easy to change, so naturally, organizations want to take advantage of this characteristic. There is pressure to change software throughout its entire development and even after it's delivered. If you're building a bridge, you don't have this kind of flexibility. You cannot say, "Hmm, now that I see the pilings, I would like this bridge to be two miles upstream." But it is very, very difficult to change software in a rigorous fashion, with all ramifications of all changes fully understood and completely coordinated. Again, because of the absence of solid theory, it's hard to validate a change set and its impact without actually doing all the changes. Most of the damage that is done to software is done through changes.
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